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Ghana FactSheet

Ghana FactSheet

Background:
Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a long series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS won the 2008 presidential election and took over as head of state, but he died in July 2012 and was constitutionally succeeded by his vice president John Dramani MAHAMA, who subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election.

Location:

Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo

Geographic coordinates:

8 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references:

Africa

Area:

total: 238,533 sq km

land: 227,533 sq km

water: 11,000 sq km

country comparison to the world:82

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:

total: 2,420 km

border countries (3): Burkina Faso 602 km, Cote d'Ivoire 720 km, Togo 1,098 km

Coastline:

539 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate:

tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Terrain:

mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area

Elevation:

mean elevation: 190 m

elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m

highest point: Mount Afadjato 885 m

Natural resources:

gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone

Land use:

agricultural land: 69.1%

arable land 20.7%; permanent crops 11.9%; permanent pasture 36.5%

forest: 21.2%

other: 9.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land:

340 sq km (2012)

Natural hazards:

dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts

Environment - current issues:

recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands

signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note:

Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake (manmade reservoir) by surface area (8,482 sq km; 3,275 sq mi); the lake was created following the completion of the Akosombo Dam in 1965, which holds back the White Volta and Black Volta Rivers

Population:

26,908,262

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 49

Nationality:

noun: Ghanaian(s)

adjective: Ghanaian

Ethnic groups:

Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande 1.1%, other 1.4% (2010 est.)

Languages:

Asante 16%, Ewe 14%, Fante 11.6%, Boron (Brong) 4.9%, Dagomba 4.4%, Dangme 4.2%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.9%, Kokomba 3.5%, Akyem 3.2%, Ga 3.1%, other 31.2%

note: English is the official language (2010 est.)

Religions:

Christian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile:

Ghana has a young age structure, with approximately 57% of the population under the age of 25. Its total fertility rate fell significantly during the 1980s and 1990s but has stalled at around four children per woman for the last few years. Fertility remains higher in the northern region than the Greater Accra region. On average, desired fertility has remained stable for several years; urban dwellers want fewer children than rural residents. Increased life expectancy, due to better health care, nutrition, and hygiene, and reduced fertility have increased Ghana’s share of elderly persons; Ghana’s proportion of persons aged 60+ is among the highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Poverty has declined in Ghana, but it remains pervasive in the northern region, which is susceptible to droughts and floods and has less access to transportation infrastructure, markets, fertile farming land, and industrial centers. The northern region also has lower school enrollment, higher illiteracy, and fewer opportunities for women.

Ghana was a country of immigration in the early years after its 1957 independence, attracting labor migrants largely from Nigeria and other neighboring countries to mine minerals and harvest cocoa – immigrants composed about 12% of Ghana’s population in 1960. In the late 1960s, worsening economic and social conditions discouraged immigration, and hundreds of thousands of immigrants, mostly Nigerians, were expelled.

During the 1970s, severe drought and an economic downturn transformed Ghana into a country of emigration; neighboring Cote d’Ivoire was the initial destination. Later, hundreds of thousands of Ghanaians migrated to Nigeria to work in its booming oil industry, but most were deported in 1983 and 1985 as oil prices plummeted. Many Ghanaians then turned to more distant destinations, including other parts of Africa, Europe, and North America, but the majority continued to migrate within West Africa. Since the 1990s, increased emigration of skilled Ghanaians, especially to the US and the UK, drained the country of its health care and education professionals. Internally, poverty and other developmental disparities continue to drive Ghanaians from the north to the south, particularly to its urban centers.

Age structure:

0-14 years: 38.2% (male 5,164,505/female 5,113,185)

15-24 years: 18.66% (male 2,498,185/female 2,522,353)

25-54 years: 34.05% (male 4,445,321/female 4,716,311)

55-64 years: 4.91% (male 642,984/female 678,784)

65 years and over: 4.19% (male 520,589/female 606,045) (2016 est.)

population pyramid:

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 73%

youth dependency ratio: 67.2%

elderly dependency ratio: 5.9%

potential support ratio: 17% (2015 est.)

Median age:

total: 21 years

male: 20.5 years

female: 21.5 years (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 184

Population growth rate:

2.18% (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 40

Birth rate:

30.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 38

Death rate:

7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 133

Net migration rate:

-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 161

Urbanization:

urban population: 54% of total population (2015)

rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:

Kumasi 2.599 million; ACCRA (capital) 2.277 million (2015)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female

total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

22.6

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:

319 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 32

Infant mortality rate:

total: 36.3 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 40.2 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 32.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 56

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 66.6 years

male: 64.1 years

female: 69.1 years (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 172

Total fertility rate:

4.03 children born/woman (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 37

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

19.5% (2013)

Health expenditures:

3.6% of GDP (2014)

country comparison to the world: 133

Physicians density:

0.1 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density:

0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:

improved:

urban: 92.6% of population

rural: 84% of population

total: 88.7% of population

unimproved:

urban: 7.4% of population

rural: 16% of population

total: 11.3% of population (2015 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

improved:

urban: 20.2% of population

rural: 8.6% of population

total: 14.9% of population

unimproved:

urban: 79.8% of population

rural: 91.4% of population

total: 85.1% of population (2015 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

1.61% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

274,600 (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 23

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

12,600 (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 26

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever

water contact disease: schistosomiasis

respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis

animal contact disease: rabies (2016)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

10.9% (2014)

country comparison to the world: 140

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

11% (2014)

country comparison to the world: 55

Education expenditures:

6.2% of GDP (2014)

country comparison to the world: 13

Literacy:

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 76.6%

male: 82%

female: 71.4% (2015 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 11 years

male: 12 years

female: 11 years (2014)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 1,806,750

percentage: 34% (2006 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 11.2%

male: 10.2%

female: 12% (2010 est.)

 

Country name:

conventional long form: Republic of Ghana

conventional short form: Ghana

former: Gold Coast

etymology: named for the medieval West African kingdom of the same name, but whose location was actually further north than the modern country

Government type:

presidential republic

Capital:

name: Accra

geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W

time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western

Independence:

6 March 1957 (from the UK)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

Constitution:

several previous; latest drafted 31 March 1992, approved and promulgated 28 April 1992, entered into force 7 January 1993; amended 1996 (2016)

Legal system:

mixed system of English common law and customary law

International law organization participation:

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

Citizenship:

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent or grandparent must be a citizen of Ghana

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years

Suffrage:

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (NPP) (since 7 January 2017); the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (since 7 January 2017); Vice President Mahamudu BAWUMIA (NPP) (since 7 January 2017)

cabinet: Council of Ministers; nominated by the president, approved by Parliament

elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)

election results: Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO elected president; percent of vote - Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO (NPP) 54.1%, John Dramani MAHAMA (NDC) 44.0%, other 1.8%; note - results after 267 of 275 constituencies declared

Legislative branch:

description: unicameral Parliament (275 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 7 December 2016 (next to be held in December 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDC 148, NPP 123, PNC 1, independent 3

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 12 justices)

judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president in consultation with the Council of State (a small advisory body of prominent citizens) and with the approval of Parliament; other justices appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Council (an 18-member independent body of judicial, military and police officials, and presidential nominees) and on the advice of the Council of State; justices can retire at age 60, with compulsory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Circuit Court; District Court; regional tribunals

Political parties and leaders:

Convention People's Party or CPP [Samia NKRUMAH]

National Democratic Congress or NDC [John Dramani MAHAMA]

New Patriotic Party or NPP [Nana AFUKO-ADDO]

People's National Convention or PNC [Hassan AYARIGA]

note: listed are four of the more popular political parties as of December 2012; there are more than 20 registered parties

Political pressure groups and leaders:

Christian Aid (water rights)

Committee for Joint Action or CJA (social and economic issues)

National Coalition Against the Privatization of Water or CAP (water rights)

Oxfam (water rights)

Public Citizen (water rights)

Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI] (education reform)

Third World Network (social and economic issues)

International organization participation:

ACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Lt. Gen. Joseph Henry SMITH (since September 2014)

chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008

telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520

FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527

consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Robert P. JACKSON (since 4 February 2016)

embassy: 24 Fourth Circular Rd., Cantonments, Accra

mailing address: P.O. Box 194, Accra

telephone: [233] 030-274-1000

FAX: [233] 030-274-1389

Flag description:

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green, with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; red symbolizes the blood shed for independence, yellow represents the country's mineral wealth, while green stands for its forests and natural wealth; the black star is said to be the lodestar of African freedom

note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

National symbol(s):

black star, golden eagle; national colors: red, yellow, green, black

National anthem:

name: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"

lyrics/music: unknown/Philip GBEHO

note: music adopted 1957, lyrics adopted 1966; the lyrics were changed twice, in 1960 when a republic was declared and after a 1966 coup

 

Economy - overview:

Ghana's economy was strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels, but in recent years has suffered the consequences of loose fiscal policy, high budget and current account deficits, and a depreciating currency. Ghana has a market-based economy with relatively few policy barriers to trade and investment in comparison with other countries in the region, and Ghana is well-endowed with natural resources.

Agriculture accounts for nearly one-quarter of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. The services sector accounts for about half of GDP. Gold and cocoa exports, and individual remittances, are major sources of foreign exchange. Expansion of Ghana’s nascent oil industry has boosted economic growth, but the recent oil price crash reduced by half Ghana’s 2015 oil revenue. Production at Jubilee, Ghana's offshore oilfield, began in mid-December 2010 and currently produces roughly 110,000 barrels per day. The country’s first gas processing plant at Atubao is also producing natural gas from the Jubilee field, providing power to several of Ghana’s thermal power plants.

As of 2015, the biggest single economic issue facing Ghana is the lack of consistent electricity. While the MAHAMA administration is taking steps to improve the situation, little progress has been made. Ghana signed a $920 million extended credit facility with the IMF in April 2015 to help it address its growing economic crisis. The IMF fiscal targets will require Ghana to reduce the fiscal deficit by cutting subsidies, decreasing the bloated public sector wage bill, strengthening revenue administration, and increasing revenues. The challenge for Ghana will come as the MAHAMA Administration approaches the November 2016 elections, facing public dissatisfaction in the midst of economic austerity.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$120.8 billion (2016 est.)

$116.9 billion (2015 est.)

$112.5 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars

country comparison to the world: 82

>GDP (official exchange rate):

$42.76 billion (2015 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

3.3% (2016 est.)

3.9% (2015 est.)

4% (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 84

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$4,400 (2016 est.)

$4,300 (2015 est.)

$4,300 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars

country comparison to the world: 174

Gross national saving:

16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

17.1% of GDP (2015 est.)

17% of GDP (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 113

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 66.6%

government consumption: 19.6%

investment in fixed capital: 24.5%

investment in inventories: 0.8%

exports of goods and services: 36.7%

imports of goods and services: -48.2% (2016 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 19.5%

industry: 24%

services: 56.4% (2016 est.)

Agriculture - products:

cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber

Industries:

mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate:

-0.5% (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 176

Labor force:

11.99 million (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 48

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 44.7%

industry: 14.4%

services: 40.9% (2013 est.)

Unemployment rate:

5.2% (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 57

Population below poverty line:

24.2% (2013 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2%

highest 10%: 32.8% (2006)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

42.3 (2012-13)

41.9 (2005-06)

country comparison to the world: 53

Budget:

revenues: $9.068 billion

expenditures: $11.55 billion (2016 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 141

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-5.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 174

Public debt:

73.7% of GDP (2016 est.)

71.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world:40

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

17.8% (2016 est.)

17.2% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 218

Central bank discount rate:

21% (31 December 2014)

16% (31 December 2013)

country comparison to the world: 4

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

31.8% (31 December 2016 est.)

28.6% (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 6

Stock of narrow money:

$5.914 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

$5.736 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 95

Stock of broad money:

$13.02 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

$12.42 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 102

Stock of domestic credit:

$13.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

$12.93 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 98

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$3.465 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

$3.097 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

$3.531 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

country comparison to the world: 92

Current account balance:

-$2.693 billion (2016 est.)

-$2.836 billion (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 156

Exports:

$10.25 billion (2016 est.)

$10.36 billion (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 87

Exports - commodities:

oil, gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products

Exports - partners:

India 25.2%, Switzerland 12.2%, China 10.6%, France 5.7% (2015)

Imports:

$13.73 billion (2016 est.)

$13.47 billion (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 87

Imports - commodities:

capital equipment, refined petroleum, foodstuffs

Imports - partners:

China 32.6%, Nigeria 14%, Netherlands 5.5%, US 5.4% (2015)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$6.137 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

$5.885 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 88

Debt - external:

$21.17 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

$19.15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 88

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$19.85 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

$118 million (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 77

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$16.62 billion (31 December 2013 est.)

$109 million (31 December 2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 55

Exchange rates:

cedis (GHC) per US dollar -

3.992 (2016 est.)

3.712 (2015 est.)

3.712 (2014 est.)

2.895 (2013 est.)

1.8 (2012 est.)

 

Electricity - production:

13 billion kWh (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 92

Electricity - consumption:

9.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

Electricity - exports:

500 million kWh (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 71

Electricity - imports:

51 million kWh (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 105

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

2.847 million kW (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 99

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

45.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 156

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 150

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

54.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 44

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)

country comparison to the world: 210

Crude oil - production:

102,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 43

Crude oil - exports:

98,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 34

Crude oil - imports:

26,040 bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Crude oil - proved reserves:

660 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)

country comparison to the world: 45

Refined petroleum products - production:

10,640 bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 103

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

83,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 86

Refined petroleum products - exports:

1,977 bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 108

Refined petroleum products - imports:

72,850 bbl/day (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 67

Natural gas - production:

50 million cu m (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 83

Natural gas - consumption:

650 million cu m (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 93

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 163

Natural gas - imports:

600 million cu m (2014 est.)

country comparison to the world: 63

Natural gas - proved reserves:

22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)

country comparison to the world: 74

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

11 million Mt (2013 est.)

country comparison to the world: 101

 

Telephones - fixed lines:

total subscriptions: 275,570

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 120

Telephones - mobile cellular:

total: 35.008 million

subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 133 (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 42

Telephone system:

general assessment: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accra

domestic: competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 130 per 100 persons and rising

international: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South Africa, Europe, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaf (2015)

Broadcast media:

state-owned TV station, 2 state-owned radio networks; several privately owned TV stations and a large number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible; several cable and satellite TV subscriptio (2007)

Internet country code:

.gh

Internet users:

total: 6.181 million

percent of population: 23.5% (July 2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 68

 

National air transport system:

number of registered air carriers: 4

inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 8

annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 390,457

annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 844,630 mt-km (2015)

Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:

9G (2016)

Airports:

10 (2013)

country comparison to the world: 156

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 7

over 3,047 m: 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)

Pipelines:

gas 394 km; oil 20 km; refined products 361 km (2013)

Railways:

total: 947 km

narrow gauge: 947 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)

country comparison to the world: 92

Roadways:

total: 109,515 km

paved: 13,787 km

unpaved: 95,728 km (2009)

country comparison to the world: 45

Waterways:

1,293 km (168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta) (2011)

country comparison to the world: 56

Merchant marine:

total: 4

by type: petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3

foreign-owned: 2 (Brazil 1, South Korea 1) (2010)

country comparison to the world: 133

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Takoradi, Tema

 

Military branches:

Ghana Army, Ghana Navy, Ghana Air Force (2012)

Military service age and obligation:

18-26 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription; must be HIV/AIDS negative (2012)

Military expenditures:

0.56% of GDP (2014)

0.61% of GDP (2013)

0.27% of GDP (2012)

country comparison to the world: 125

Disputes - international:

disputed maritime border between Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees (country of origin): 11,419 (Cote d'Ivoire; flight from 2010 post-election fighting) (2016)

Trafficking in persons:

current situation: Ghana is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; the trafficking of Ghanians, particularly children, internally is more common than the trafficking of foreign nationals; Ghanian children are subjected to forced labor in fishing, domestic service, street hawking, begging, portering, mining, quarrying, herding, and agriculture, with girls, and to a lesser extent boys, forced into prostitution; Ghanian women, sometimes lured with legitimate job offers, and girls are sex trafficked in West Africa, the Middle East, and Europe; Ghanian men fraudulently recruited for work in the Middle East are subjected to forced labor or prostitution, and a few Ghanian adults have been identified as victims of false labor in the US; women and girls from Vietnam, China, and neighboring West African countries are sex trafficked in Ghana; the country is also a transit point for sex trafficking from West Africa to Europe

tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Ghana does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; Ghana continued to investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses but was unable to ramp up its anti-trafficking efforts in 2014 because the government failed to provide law enforcement or protection agencies with operating budgets; victim protection efforts decreased in 2014, with significantly fewer victims identified; most child victims were referred to NGO-run facilities, but care for adults was lacking because the government did not provide any support to the country’s Human Trafficking Fund for victim services or its two shelters; anti-trafficking prevention measures increased modestly, including reconvening of the Human Trafficking Management Board, public awareness campaigns on child labor and trafficking, and anti-trafficking TV and radio programs (2015)

Illicit drugs:

illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money-laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use